After disasters, Build Change produces reconnaissance reports to assess the damage, learn about building structures and materials and provide advice. We intend that these resources be used to share our knowledge with others. Build Change has completed post-disaster housing assessments across 15 countries and 45 events currently includes over 30 earthquakes, 12 windstorms, 1 fire and 1 flooding event.

Al Haouz Province, Morocco - 2023

Al Haouz Province, Morocco – 2023

Earthquake – September 8, Al Haouz Province, Morocco, 6.8-magnitude Earthquake
2.8 million people were affected; more than 59,000 houses were damaged, of which more than 30% collapsed. Earthen homes performed worse than masonry homes, but damage was observed in both types.

Kahramanmaraş, Turkiye - 2023

Kahramanmaraş, Turkiye – 2023

Earthquake – February 6, Kahramanmaraş, Turkiye, 7.8-magnitude Earthquake
Poor quality of concrete and steel reinforcement, poor rebar detailing, insufficient building separation, weak and/or soft stories and deterioration of structural elements were common vulnerbabilities across residential building types that suffered damage or collapse.

Cianjur, Indonesia - 2022

Cianjur, Indonesia – 2022

Earthquake November 21st, Cianjur, Indonesia, 5.6 magnitude Earthquake
School infrastructure in Indonesia is substantially vulnerable as demonstrated in Cianjur and many prior earthquakes. Build Change repaired and retrofit SDN Tamansari school in Cianjur after the earthquake, ensuring that 240 children can go back to learn and play in a safer environment.

Sula Valley, Honduras - 2022

Sula Valley, Honduras – 2022

FloodSeptember, Sula Valley, Honduras Flooding
The event validated Build Change’s approach to improving houses in the area to be flood resilient. The homes were previously retrofit and vertically expanded; this enabled owners to save their belongings upstairs and quickly resume their normal lives, even while others were still in the process of cleaning the first stories from mud.

Cabanatuan, Philippines - 2022

Cabanatuan, Philippines – 2022

Super Typhoon Karding/Noru – September 25, Philippines
Over 1 million people affected and over 50,000 houses damaged. Out of 438 houses that was supported by the disaster resilient housing microfinance loan program none reported damage on their structures.

Khotang, Nepal - 2022

Khotang, Nepal – 2022

July 31, 6.0 magnitude Earthquake
Newly built stone with mud mortar (SMM) houses with earthquake-resistant elements survived the Khotang earthquake with little or no damage, whereas newly built SMM houses without any horizontal bandages or vertical reinforcement were severely damaged.

Abra, Philippines - 2022

Abra, Philippines – 2022

Earthquake – July 27, Abra, Philippines, 7.0 magnitude Earthquake
A structural assessment of various residential and commercial structures in the vicinity of the Bangued area found that most houses without ring beams suffered out of plane damage to the walls, resulting in corner separation and walls that were not stable.

Bohol, Philippines - 2022

Bohol, Philippines – 2022

Super Typhoon Rai/OdetteDecember 12-22, Philippines
Many homes were severely damaged or destroyed, in particular, houses constructed with timber and other light materials were damaged at high rates. Timber homes with masonry skirt walls rebuilt after the 2013 earthquake were destroyed by the storm.

Boulder, USA - 2021

Boulder, USA – 2021

Marshall Fires – December 31 Boulder, Colorado
The fire’s rapid spread was primarily fueled by airborne flaming debris, exacerbated by the forceful winds prevalent in the area that day. Additionally, the proximity of adjacent buildings and the use of combustible building materials, including wood frame structures with wood/composite siding and asphalt shingles also contributed.

Tiburon Peninsula, Haiti - 2021

Tiburon Peninsula, Haiti – 2021

August 14, Tiburon Peninsula, Haiti, 7.2-magnitude Earthquake
Extensive damage was noted in residential buildings, schools, police stations and healthcare facilities. The observed damages were primarily attributed to irregular building configuration, such as soft story and vertical irregularity, and compounded by the poor quality of materials, design and construction.

Calabarzon, Philippines - 2021

Calabarzon, Philippines – 2021

November 8-15, Philippines Category 4 equivalent Typhoon Vamco/Ulysses
A housing sub-sector study in the first phase of implementing a home strengthening loan product with MFI partner ASHI in the Calabarzon region showed that the single-story masonry houses affected by the storm were in need of repair and strengthening, and also feel within the applicability of the loan product.

Sula Valley, Honduras - 2020

Sula Valley, Honduras – 2020

The hurricanes led to floods with water levels surpassing three meters, affecting approximately 4.7 million people. In response, Build Change initiated a climate-resilient housing project, with the primary objective of exploring innovative solutions to allow people to remain safely in their homes during seasonal weather events.

Abaco, Bahamas - 2019

Abaco, Bahamas – 2019

Approximately 75% of dwellings were impacted. The quality of self-built houses varied. Construction costs were noted to be high, attributed to competition from the high-end market and challenges such as import delays and associated costs.

Batanes, Philippines - 2019

Batanes, Philippines – 2019

Many unreinforced limestone masonry houses totally collapsed during the earthquake and a even reinforced concrete houses suffered out of plane failure of gable wall and wall cracks.

Puerto Rico - 2018

Puerto Rico – 2018

September 6, Category 5 Hurricane Irma
In one- and two-story houses, timber-framed roofs and poor quality or deteriorated timber-framed walls suffered the most damage due to the hurricanes. Timber-framed walls and roofs also detached from the foundation or walls below due to inadequate connections.

Port-de-Paix, Haiti - 2018

Port-de-Paix, Haiti – 2018

October 6, 5.9-magnitude Earthquake
The severe damage to many buildings visited was due mostly to the use of poor construction practices, such as the use of poor-quality material. This was especially common in masonry buildings, where low-strength blocks and the use of sea sand was frequently observed.

Sulawesi, Indonesia – 2018

Sulawesi, Indonesia – 2018

Earthquake and Tsunami: September 28, 2018 – Central Sulawesi (Palu), Indonesia, 7.5-magnitude. Build Change conducted a field visit in late October and early November 2018 to the impacted areas, including four cities,  17 sub-districts and 24 villages.
2018 Central Sulawesi (Palu) Earthquake and Tsunami Reconnaissance Report

Cagayan Valley, Philippines - 2018

Cagayan Valley, Philippines – 2018

September 15, Typhoon Ompong/ Mangkhut
Reconnaissance in Cagagyan and Benguet was performed. Timber houses were the most affected by the storm, particularly light-framed roofs. Concrete block walls of masonry homes where wooden posts were used in the walls instead of reinforced concrete columns were also damaged due to the typhoon.

Lombok, Indonesia – 2018

Lombok, Indonesia – 2018

Earthquake: August 5, 2018 – Lombok, Indonesia, 7.0-magnitude. Build Change conducted a field visit in early September 2018 to the impacted areas including Lombok Timur and Lombok Utara. This report summarized the findings and general recommendations based on the observed damage.
2018 Lombok Post-Earthquake Reconnaissance Report

Terrai Region, Nepal - 2018

Terrai Region, Nepal – 2018

Floods in 2017 affected Terai districts such as Morang, Sunsari, Saprari, Siraha, Dhanusa. The effect on houses was more prominent in low areas without proper drainage systems. The houses that had mud mortar foundations were the most affected.

Surigao Del Norte, Mindanao, Philippines – 2017

Surigao Del Norte, Mindanao, Philippines – 2017

Surigao Earthquake: February 10, 2017 – Surigao del Norte, Mindanao, Philippines
Build Change Post-Earthquake Reconnaissance Report following magnitude-6.7 earthquake.

Dominica - 2017

Dominica – 2017

Roughly 45% of houses were complete destroyed or substantially damaged. A common vulnerability was insufficient connections, particularly between timber elements (such as roofs or walls) and concrete elements (like masonry walls and foundations). Many of the homes can be repaired and retrofit to better withstand future events.

Puebla-Morelos, Mexico - 2017

Puebla-Morelos, Mexico – 2017

September 19, 7.1-magnitude Earthquake
In the Jojutla, Morelos area, the trend was less clear in relation to the age and type of construction systems that collapsed, where many confined masonry houses also collapsed. This is probably attributable to configuration and construction quality deficiencies as well.

Oxaca, Mexico - 2017

Oxaca, Mexico – 2017

September 7, 8.2-magnitude Earthquake
In Oaxaca and Chiapas there is a clear predominance of collapse in older structures, mainly built using unreinforced construction systems, such as brick masonry, or earth construction; modern confined masonry structures also collapsed, although in a lower proportion, likely due to configuration and construction quality deficiencies.

Pidie Jaya,
Indonesia – 2016

Earthquake: December 7, 2016 – Aceh Indonesia, 6.5-magnitude

Build Change 2016 Pidie Jaya Earthquake Reconnaissance Report

Jeremie, Les Cayes & Moron, Haiti – 2016

Hurricane: October 4, 2016 – Hurricane Matthew in Haiti
Build Change conducted a reconnaissance trip to affected areas in the weeks after the hurricane made landfall in Haiti, and produced this reconnaissance report.

Manabi, Ecuador – 2016

Earthquake: April 16, 2016

A team of Build Change engineers conducted a field visit in early May 2016 to several of the towns impacted by the earthquake along the western coast of Ecuador including: Manta, Canoa, Crucita, Jama, and Portoviejo. This report summarizes their findings and conclusions based on the damage they witnessed.

Gorkha, Nepal – 2015

Earthquake: April 25, 2015 – Gorkha, Nepal, 7.3-magnitude

Build Change 2015 Nepal Earthquake Reconnaissance Report
October 1, 2015 Updated Version of Nepal Earthquake Reconnaissance Report

Los Santos, Colombia – 2015

Earthquake: March 10, 2015 – Los Santos, Santander, Colombia, 6.2-magnitude
Colombia Post-Earthquake Reconnaissance Report

Visayas, Philippines – 2013

Typhoon Yolanda/Haiyan: November 8, 2013 – Visayas, Philippines
Philippines Reconnaissance Report following magnitude-7.1 earthquake and Typhoon Yolanda.

Bohol, Philippines – 2013

Earthquake: October 15, 2013 – Bohol, Philippines, 7.1-magnitude
Philippines Reconnaissance Report following magnitude-7.1 earthquake and Typhoon Yolanda.

Aceh, Indonesia – 2012

Earthquake: April 11, 8.6-magnitude
Following the earthquake, 131 houses were assessed in Keune, Lampisang, Lamlumpu, Lambateung and Kayee Lheu. Very minimal damages were reported in houses that had followed Build Change’s guidelines, whereas more damage was reported where the guidelines were not followed.

San Marcos & Quetzaltenango, Guatemala – 2012

Earthquakes: November 7, 2012 (7.5-magnitude) and July 7, 2014 (6.9-magnitude).
Build Change did a field visit to 6 schools in February 2015 to evaluate necessary technical assistance and potential deficiencies.

Padang, Indonesia –

Earthquake: September 30, 2009 – Padang, Indonesia, 7.9-magnitude
Build Change contributed to the Housing section in the EERI Report.

Sichuan, China – 2008

Earthquake: May 12, 2008 – Sichuan, China, 7.9-magnitude
Build Change reports from a study facilitated by the University of California, Office of the President, 10 + 10 Strategic Partnership.
1: Needs Assessment and Planning
2: Housing Types
3: Housing Performance
4: Building Performance
5: Xiao Yu Dong Bridge
6: Gao Yuan Bridge

Bengkulu, Indonesia – 2007

Earthquake: September 12, 2007 – Bengkulu, Indonesia, 8.5-magnitude
Available in English (EN) and Bahasa Indonesia (BI):
Build Change Report (EN)
Build Change Report (BI)

Pisco, Peru – 2007

Earthquake: August 15, 2007 – Pisco, Peru, 8.0-magnitude
Our staff examined common causes of structural failure in April 2008.

Central Java, Indonesia – 2006

Earthquake: May 27, 2006 – Central Java, Indonesia, 6.3-magnitude
Available in English (EN) and Bahasa Indonesia (BI):
Build Change Report (EN)
Build Change Report (BI)

Bam, Iran – 2003

Earthquake: December 26, 2003 – Bam, Iran, 6.6-magnitude
Intermediate Shelters in Bam and Permanent Shelter Reconstruction in Villages Following the 2003 Bam, Iran Earthquake

Bhuj, India – 2001

Earthquake: January 26, 2001 – Bhuj, India, 7.7-magnitude
Housing Reconstruction and Retrofitting After the 2001 Kachchh, Gujarat Earthquake

Killari (1993), Chamoli (1999) & Bhuj (2001), India

Earthquakes: 1993 – Killari, India, 6.2-magnitude
1999 – Chamoli, India, 6.8-magnitude
2001 – Bhuj, India, 7.7-magnitude
Long-Term Change in Construction Practice Through Post-Earthquake Reconstructions